Fat is a form of stored energy reserve and our body breaks down fat globules when there is no immediate supply of carbohydrates or energy. When our body taps into our reserved energy source, ketone bodies are formed as a result of the break down and the manufacturing is scientifically termed as ketogenesis. Lack of carbohydrates in our daily dietary schedule can result in the usage of fat and thus the formation of ketones. Ketones are also formed in blood when our system is unable to utilize the sugar in our blood and thus it must resort to breaking down fat stores. Kidney and liver are the two organs where this process of fat breaking occurs and therefore ketones are also primarily found in these two organs, while they are used mostly by the heart and the brain. Acetone and acetoacetic acid are the two main forms of ketone but beta-hydroxybutyric acid is also considered to be a ketone up to an extent. The main function of the ketone bodies is to supply the brain and the heart with energy after the fat is broken down.
A test which determines the amount of ketones present in the blood of the person is called the serum ketones test. The test is mainly done to check whether the ketogenesis within the person’s body is above the normal level, which may indicate ketosis. Ketosis is not harmful at the beginning, but there remains a chance that the frequency of ketogenesis in blood may increase further to a point when the patient’s blood might turn acidic due to a very low pH level. Such an advanced stage is termed as ketoacidosis. The chances of ketoacidosis are high among diabetic patients and thus they check their blood often for increased ketone formation.