Embryonic stem cells
Embryonic stem cells are cells that come from the epiblast tissue of the inner cell mass of a blastocyst. A blastocyst is basically an embryo in an early stage (3-5 days old). These embryos are fertilized in vitro. Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent in their nature, so they can differentiate into numerous cell types. Embryonic stem cells are grown in a laboratory. This is called cell culture. Check the image below to see how embryonic stem cells are „pushed“ to differentiate.
Many scientists have worked on this subject for over ten years, but there are still no approved treatments.
Almost all of the research has been conducted on mouse embryonic stem cells or human embryonic stem cells.
Another important thing that needs to be mentioned is that embryonic stem cells (pluripotent) require specific signals when differentiating. That way they differentiate into specific cell types we want.
Otherwise, if they get injected in the body directly, they differentiate into many cell types causing a teratoma.
In ES cells lies a big potential for regenerative medicine and tissue repairment.