Molecular Characterization and Immune Protection by Cystathionine β-synthase from Eimeria tenella

Eimeria tenella is an obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite that causes avian coccidiosis and leads to severe economic losses in the global poultry industry. Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CGL) act together to generate H2S in the reverse transsulfuration pathway. In this study, E.tenella Cystathionine β-synthase (EtCBS) was cloned using rapid amplification of cDNA 5′-ends (5’RACE) and characterized, and its immunoprotective effects were evaluated.
The recombinant EtCBS protein (rEtCBS) was expressed and successfully recognized by anti-sporozoites (Spz) protein rabbit serum. EtCBS mRNA levels were highest in Spz by qPCR, and the protein expression levels were higher in unsporulated oocysts (UO) than in other stages by western blot. Indirect immunofluorescence showed that EtCBS protein was found on the surface of Spz and second-generation merozoites (Mrz).
The invasion inhibition assays showed that rabbit anti-rEtCBS polyclonal antibodies joplink Aflatoxin B effectively inhibited parasite invasion host cells. Chickens immuzized with rEtCBS protein showed rominently increased weight gains and decreased oocyst output compared to non-immunized and infected control group. The results suggest that EtCBS could be a potential vaccine candidate against E. tenella.

Altered Development of Mesencephalic Dopaminergic Neurons in SIDS: New Insights into Understanding Sudden Infant Death Pathogenesis

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is defined as the unexpected sudden death of an infant under 1 year of age that remains unexplained after a thorough case investigation. The SIDS pathogenesis is still unknown; however, abnormalities in brain centers that control breathing and arousal from sleep, including dramatic changes in neurotransmitter levels, have been supposed in these deaths. This is the first study focusing on mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons, so far extensively studied only in animals and human neurological diseases, in SIDS. Dopaminergic structures in midbrain sections of a large series of sudden infant deaths (36 SIDS and 26 controls) were identified using polyclonal rabbit antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, and the dopamine transporter, a membrane protein specifically expressed in dopaminergic cells. Dopamine-immunolabeled neurons were observed concentrated in two specific structures: the pars compacta of the substantia nigra and in the subnucleus medialis of the periaqueductal gray matter. Anatomical and functional degenerations of dopaminergic neurons in these regions were observed in most SIDS cases but never in controls. These results indicate that dopamine depletion, which is already known to be linked especially to Parkinson’s disease, is strongly involved even in SIDS pathogenesis.

The mediating role of coagulation function on the association of prenatal exposure to aflatoxin B1 and postpartum hemorrhage in Guangxi, China

Pregnant women are vulnerable to certain environmental agents, one of which is aflatoxin. As one of the most popular aflatoxinsAflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has recently garnered increased attention concerning its potential association between exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aims of the study were to examine the associations between prenatal exposure to AFB1 and postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), and whether coagulation function has a mediating effect on their relationship.
A total of 379 mother-infant pairs were included in the present study. Prenatal serum AFB1 albumin (AFB1-Alb) adduct levels in peripheral venous blood were detected by using an ELISA kit. Multiple linear and logistics regression models were applied to analyze the relationship between AFB1-Alb levels and PPH. We found mothers with high levels of AFB1-Alb adduct levels had significantly increased postpartum blood loss (partial regression coefficient (β) = 50.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.48, 97.95).
Mothers with high levels of AFB1-Alb adduct levels also had significantly increased risk of PPH (odds ratio (OR) = 4.81, 95% CI 1.01, 22.98). Moreover, concentrations of AFB1-Alb were positively associated with activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) while negatively associated with fibrinogen (FIB). One-unit increase in APTT was correlated with a 6.62-ml (95% CI 3.04, 10.20) increase in postpartum blood loss. Mediation analysis suggested that the maternal blood APTT levels had a positive mediating effect in the association between AFB1-Alb adduct levels and postpartum blood loss (β = 0.32, 95% CI 0.04, 0.68). These results indicated that prenatal exposure to AFB1 was associated with increased postpartum blood loss, possibly by interfering with maternal APTT levels.

Dietary administration of Bacillus subtilis KC1 improves growth performance, immune response, heat stress tolerance, and disease resistance of broiler chickens

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the probiotic properties of Bacillus subtilis KC1 as a feed additive in the poultry feed. Effects of the Bacillus subtilis supplementation on growth performance, heat-stress tolerance, resistance to Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and Salmonella Pullorum challenge of broilers were determined. The protective effects of the Bacillus subtilis on liver function and immune response of broilers challenged with Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) were also scrutinized.
The results showed that the Bacillus subtilis supplementation could improve growth performance, increased body weight, relative weight of the immune organ and dressing percentage, and decrease feed conversion ratio. In addition, the Bacillus subtilis supplementation alleviated adverse effects caused by heat stress, MG, and Salmonella Pullorum challenge. Furthermore, the Bacillus subtilis supplementation resulted in improved liver function and enhanced immune response of broilers challenged with AFB1. In conclusion, these results suggested a tremendous potential of Bacillus subtilis KC1 as a feed additive in the poultry feed.

The preventive effect and mechanisms of adsorbent supplementation in low concentration aflatoxin B1 contaminated diet on subclinical symptom and histological lesions of broilers

This study aimed to investigate the subclinical symptom and histological lesions of 21-day-old and 42-day-old broilers exposure to low concentration aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), and the preventive effect with adsorbent (Toxo-MX) supplementation. A total of 576 one-day-old Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted into 6 treatments 8 replicates and 12 birds per cage, fed with 0 ppb, 60 ppb and 120 ppb AFB1 contamination diet with or without Toxo-MX supplementation. Results showed both 60 ppb and 120 ppb AFB1 contamination significantly reduced growth performance in 21-day-old broilers (P < 0.05), but not in 42-day-old broilers (P > 0.05), however, AFB1 contamination in diet caused a higher feed to gain ratio (P < 0.05).
Broilers of 21-day-old exposure to 60 ppb and 120 ppb AFB1 increased mRNA expression of hepatic inflammatory cytokines, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity (P < 0.05), 42-day-old broilers showed a same change in 120 ppb but not in 60 ppb of AFB1 contamination (P < 0.05). mRNA expressions of clauding-1, Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), and occludin decreased, but Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3 increased in 21-day-old broilers exposure to 60 ppb and 120 ppb AFB1 (P < 0.05), broilers of 42-day-old resisted on intestinal aflatoxicosis impairment against 60 ppb AFB1 contamination (P < 0.05), but not in 120 ppb (P < 0.05).
Toxo-MX supplementation significantly reversed the detrimental effects on growth performance in both age broilers and reduced the accelerated feed to gain ratio caused by AFB1 (P < 0.05). Intestinal mRNA expression of tight junction and apoptotic genes in both age broilers were recovered by Toxo-MX supplementation (P < 0.05). However, Toxo-MX did not restore the accelerated expression of hepatic inflammation cytokines and SOD, GSH-Px in 120ppb AFB1 group (P < 0.05). The data demonstrated that diet supplementation with Toxo-MX reversed the detrimental effect on growth performance and intestine in broilers exposure to 60 ppb and 120 ppb AFB1. However, did not completely recovered hepatic inflammation induced by AFB1.

Aflatoxin B1

10mM/1mL 311 EUR

Aflatoxin B1

1 mg 119 EUR

Aflatoxin B1

5 mg 342 EUR

Aflatoxin B1

1ml 313 EUR

Aflatoxin B1 Standard

0.5ug/mL 523 EUR

Aflatoxin B1 [BSA]

1mg 780 EUR

Aflatoxin B1 [FITC]

200ul 1365 EUR

Aflatoxin B1 [HRP]

1mg 1170 EUR

Aflatoxin B1 [KLH]

1mg 1040 EUR

Aflatoxin B1 [OVA]

500ul 780 EUR