Development of a Novel Double Antibody Sandwich ELISA for Quantitative Detection of Porcine Deltacoronavirus Antigen

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) can cause diarrhea and dehydration in newborn piglets. Here, we developed a double antibody sandwich quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) for detection of PDCoV by using a specific monoclonal antibody against the PDCoV N protein and an anti-PDCoV rabbit polyclonal antibody. Using DAS-ELISA, the detection limit of recombinant PDCoV N protein and virus titer were approximately 0.5 ng/mL and 103.0 TCID50/mL, respectively.
A total of 59 intestinal and 205 fecal samples were screened for the presence of PDCoV by using DAS-ELISA and reverse transcriptase real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). The coincidence rate of the DAS-ELISA and RT-qPCR was 89.8%. DAS-ELISA had a sensitivity of 80.8% and specificity of 95.6%. More importantly, the DAS-ELISA could detect the antigen of PDCoV  Joblink C-terminal 10xHis-tagged Recombinant inactivated virus, and the viral antigen concentrations remained unchanged in the inactivated virus. These results suggest that DAS-ELISA could be used for antigen detection of clinical samples and inactivated vaccines. It is a novel method for detecting PDCoV infections and evaluating the PDCoV vaccine.

A simplified and sensitive immunoprecipitation mass spectrometry protocol for the analysis of amyloid-beta peptides in brain tissue

In the field of Alzheimer’s disease, there is an urgent need for novel analytical tools to identify disease-specific biomarkers and to evaluate therapeutics. Preclinical trials commonly employ amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide signatures as a read-out. In this paper, we report a simplified and detailed protocol for robust immunoprecipitation of Aβ in brain tissue prior to mass spectrometric detection exemplified by a study using transgenic mice. The established method employed murine monoclonal and rabbit polyclonal antibodies and was capable of yielding well-reproducible peaks of high intensity with low background signal intensities corresponding to various Aβ forms.
Keywords: AD, Alzheimer’s disease; APP, amyloid precursor protein; Amyloid beta peptides; Aβ, amyloid beta; BSA, bovine serum albumine; Brain; FA, formic acid; IP, Immunoprecipitation; Immunoprecipitation; MALDI-TOF MS; MALDI-TOF MS, matrix-assisted-laser-desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry; MS, mass spectrometry; PBS, phosphate buffered saline; S/N, signal-to-noice ratio; SA, sinapinic acid; VD, volume of Dynabeads suspension; Wt, wild type.

A Sequel Study on the Occurrence of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV) in cut-Chrysanthemum by DAS-ELISA using Recombinant Nucleocapsid Protein to Produce Polyclonal Antiserum

The tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) belonging to the genus Orthotospovirus, family Tospoviridae, causes severe necrotic disease in field crops and horticultural crops, resulting in considerable yield loss worldwide. The development of protein-based diagnostics is essential to track the virus transmission and prevent its spread in vegetatively propagated crops such as ornamentals. In this study, nucleocapsid (N) gene of TSWV was cloned in pET 28 a (+) expression vector. Expression of the 32 kDa recombinant TSWV-N protein was induced in BL21 (DE3) cells using 1 mM of Isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG), and was confirmed through SDS-PAGE and Western blot by fluorescent-labeled secondary antibody. The bacterial cells expressed recombinant TSWV-N protein up to a concentration of 9.48 µg/ml.
The purified protein was used for immunization of a rabbit to produce specific polyclonal antiserum. The TSWV antiserum was conjugated with the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Double Antibody Sandwich-Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (DAS-ELISA) was developed and validated against TSWV infected hosts. This antiserum specifically reacted with recombinant N protein as well as TSWV infected hosts, but not with groundnut bud necrosis orthotospovirus (GBNV) as well as capsicum chlorosis orthotospovirus (CaCV) infecting tomato and chilli plants.
  • The coating antibody at 1 µg/ml concentration and 1:500 dilution of enzyme conjugate were found to be effective and economical in the detection of recombinant N protein of TSWV and the virus present naturally in the infected hosts. Using standardized DAS-ELISA protocol, the TSWV titer also was quantified in artificially inoculated assay hosts.
  • Among 11 hosts tested, higher virus titer was recorded in Nicotiana tabacum (0.270 µg/100 µl), followed by Impatiens balsamiana (0.185 µg/100 µl) and Dahlia pinnata at a low virus tire of 0.083 µg/100 µl. The diagnostic reagents and protocol (DAS-ELISA) are further validated by detecting the infection of TSWV in chrysanthemum stem cuttings from six different nurseries in the hill stations of Tamil Nadu, India.
  • The DAS-ELISA assay experimented on six varieties from four different nurseries revealed that the Mum Yellow variety had a higher percentage of TSWV infection (36%), which was followed by the Mum White variety (33%); both collected from Kotagiri Nursery.
  • The same variety exhibited a higher virus titer by DAS-ELISA, an A405 value range of 0.733 (̴ 0.115 µg) and 0.711 (̴ 0.111 µg) respectively, and a total of 27% of TSWV infection was confirmed by screening 800 stem cuttings by DAS-ELISA.
  • The presence of TSWV was also detected in 54 (6.75%) asymptomatic stem cuttings from different locations, and the A405 value ranged from 0.325 to 0.468 (̴ 0.044-0.069 µg/100 µl); this is the first reported development of immune-based diagnostics for TSWV in India. This protocol and diagnostics will be highly useful for quarantine purposes while trading large quantities of planting materials.

Construction of Genomic Library and Screening of Edwardsiella tarda Immunogenic Proteins for Their Protective Efficacy Against Edwardsiellosis

Edwardsiella tarda is a severe aquaculture pathogen that can infect many hosts including humans, animals, and fish. Timely diagnosis and treatment are crucial for the control of edwardsiellosis in the aqua industry. By using rabbit polyclonal antibody, an expression gene library of virulent Edwardsiella tarda strain ED-BDU 1 isolated in south India was constructed and screened.
The identified immune expressive proteins were characterized, and the corresponding coding sequences were cloned, expressed, and the purified recombinant proteins were used as antigens. The identified immunoreactive proteins namely HflC, HflK, and YhcI were studied for their immune protective potential in vivo by challenge experiments. The protective efficacy of HflC, HflK, and YhcI showed that the clearance of Edwardsiella from the host with ~ 60% survivability. Further, the immunoreactive proteins induce a strong immune response upon infection and elicit the significant production of IL-10, IFN-γ, Th1, and Th2 mediated mRNA expression and were therefore effective in vaccine production for edwardsiellosis.

Aquaporin (AQP) channels in the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias II: Localization of AQP3, AQP4 and AQP15 in the kidney

Three aquaporin water channel proteins, AQP3, AQP4 and AQP15 were localized to cells within the kidney of the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias, using an immunohistochemical approach. Dogfish kidney has two zones, the bundle zone (including five nephron segment bundles) and the sinus zone (with two major loops). In order to discriminate between the two loops, the cilia occurring in the first proximal/intermediate loop were labeled with two antibodies including an anti-acetylated tubulin antibody.
The second late distal tubule loop (LDT) was identified, as the nephron in that region has no luminal cilia. Strong staining of the rabbit anti-dogfish AQP3, AQP4 (AQP4/2) or AQP15 polyclonal antibodies localized to LDT tubules. These antibodies were further co-stained with a mouse anti-Na+,K+-ATPase a5 monoclonal antibody, as Na+,K+-ATPase has previously been suggested to localize to the early distal tubule (EDT) and LDT and a mouse anti-NKCC T4 antibody, as NKCC2 was previously suggested to be located in the EDT and the second half of the LDT.
In the LDT, strong AQP4/2 and AQP15 antibody staining localized together with the strong Na+,K+-ATPase antibody staining, whereas strong AQP3 antibody staining was largely separate but with an overlapping distribution. Very low levels of AQP4/2 antibody basal membrane staining was also detected in the first proximal /intermediate loop of the sinus zone. There was no mouse anti-NKCC T4 antibody staining apparent in the LDT. In the convoluted part of the bundle zone, the AQP4/2 and Na+,K+-ATPase but not the AQP3 or AQP15 antibodies stained tubule segments, with both AQP4/2 and Na+,K+-ATPase staining the EDT, and with low-level AQP4/2 staining of two other tubules of the bundle, which were most likely to be the proximal 1a (PIa) and intermediate II (IS II) tubules.
The AQP4/2 antibody also stained the EDT in the straight bundle zone. The mouse anti-NKCC T4 antibody stained the apical region of EDT tubules in the convoluted bundle zone, suggesting that the antibody was binding to the NKCC2 cotransporter. The AQP15 antibody appeared to bind to the peritubular sheath surrounding bundles in the bundle zone. Due to the AQP4/2 antibody staining in the EDT that immediately proceeds and continues into the LDT, this suggested that the strong AQP4/2, AQP15 and Na+,K+-ATPase antibody staining was located at the beginning of the LDT and therefore the strong AQP3 was located at the end of the LDT. The staining of all three AQP antibodies was blocked by the peptide-antigen used to make each one, suggesting that all the staining is specific to each antibody.

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